Measurements and Modeling of Moisture in Transformer Insulation Review

Measurements and Modeling of Moisture in Transformer  Insulation
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This is a published version of Dr. Yanqing Du's Ph.D. thesis from MIT which she completed in 1999. The thesis includes equilibrium data for moisture in the presense of paper and dielectric fluid as a function of temperature. These data provide an indication of the conditions under which the dielectric fluid can become saturated at elevated temperature, leading to liquid moisture in the fluid and probable electrical breakdown. Such phenomena probably account for some of the major distribution outages in large cities caused by cascading failures of PILC (paper insulated lead covered) cable during hot summer months, although the work in the thesis and now book was directed more toward transformer insulation systems.

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The presence of moisture in a transformer deteriorates the insulation by decreasing its electrical, mechanical, and thermal strength.Therefore, it is critical to monitor the moisture condition in both liquid and solid insulation. This book performs an extensive study of on-line moisture monitoring for transformer insulation systems and provides new tools and advanced approaches on this topic. A new set of moisture equilibrium curves for oil and paper systems is constructed with a wider range than reported in prior literature.Such curves can be used to predict moisture in the paper insulation from oil moisture measurements taken when the system is in equilibrium. When the system is not in equilibrium, the three-wavelength interdigital dielectrometry sensor developed at MIT provides a unique way to non-destructively measure the spatial profile of the moisture distribution in transformer pressboard.A universal curve is found relating dielectric properties to moisture concentration and temperature.The diffusion coefficient for pressboard as a function of temperature and moisture concentration is estimated.

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